This research is supported by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grants No. 2016M601170, Principal Investigator: Dr. Yongliang Wang)


Stimulated Reservoir Volume of Shale Reservoir-Hydraulic & Gas Fracturing


Hydraulic fracturing: The Hydraulic fracturing (HF) (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid. The process involves the high-pressure injection of 'fracking fluid' (primarily water, containing sand or other proppants suspended with the aid of thickening agents) into a wellbore to create cracks in the deep-rock formations through which natural gas, petroleum, and brine will flow more freely. When the hydraulic pressure is removed from the well, small grains of hydraulic fracturing proppants (either sand or aluminium oxide) hold the fractures open.

Hydraulic fracturing began as an experiment in 1947, and the first commercially successful application followed in 1950. As of 2012, 2.5 million "frac jobs" had been performed worldwide on oil and gas wells; over one million of those within the U.S. Such treatment is generally necessary to achieve adequate flow rates in shale gas, tight gas, tight oil, and coal seam gas wells. Some hydraulic fractures can form naturally in certain veins or dikes.

Hydraulic fracturing is highly controversial in many countries. Its proponents advocate the economic benefits of more extensively accessible hydrocarbons.] Opponents argue that these are outweighed by the potential environmental impacts, which include risks of ground and surface water contamination, air and noise pollution, and the triggering of earthquakes, along with the consequential hazards to public health and the environment.

Increases in seismic activity following hydraulic fracturing along dormant or previously unknown faults are sometimes caused by the deep-injection disposal of hydraulic fracturing flowback (a byproduct of hydraulically fractured wells), and produced formation brine (a byproduct of both fractured and nonfractured oil and gas wells). For these reasons, hydraulic fracturing is under international scrutiny, restricted in some countries, and banned altogether in others. The European Union is drafting regulations that would permit the controlled application of hydraulic fracturing.


scCO2: The Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or above its critical temperature and critical pressure.

Carbon dioxide usually behaves as a gas in air at standard temperature and pressure (STP), or as a solid called dry ice when frozen. If the temperature and pressure are both increased from STP to be at or above the critical point for carbon dioxide, it can adopt properties midway between a gas and a liquid. More specifically, it behaves as a supercritical fluid above its critical temperature (304.25 K, 31.10 °C, 87.98 °F) and critical pressure (72.9 atm, 7.39 MPa, 1,071 psi), expanding to fill its container like a gas but with a density like that of a liquid.

Supercritical CO2 is becoming an important commercial and industrial solvent due to its role in chemical extraction in addition to its low toxicity and environmental impact. The relatively low temperature of the process and the stability of CO2 also allows most compounds to be extracted with little damage or denaturing. In addition, the solubility of many extracted compounds in CO2 varies with pressure, permitting selective extractions.



1. An overview of hydraulic fracturing and other formation stimulation technologies for shale gas production - Update 2015

2. 2014, Bazant, Why Fracking Works

3. 2016, Xuewei Bao and David W. Eaton, Micro-earthquakes in Canada induced by hydraulic fracturing【Science】

4. 2017, Phase-Field Approach, hydraulic fracturing

5. Observations of Fractures Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing

6. Nanopores to megafractures-Current challenges and methods for shale gas reservoir and hydraulic fracture characterization

7. PFC_Hydraulic Fracturingin Coal_Hydraulic Mechanical Coupled

8. Birdsell_Fluid Flow of Hydraulic Fracturing_Potentional Pollution_Review_WRR2015

9. Reagan_Fluid Flow of Hydraulic Fracturing_Potentional Pollution_Modelling_WRR2015

10. A continuum model for coupled stress and fluid flow in discrete fracture networks

11. 3Dprinting_Rock Microstructure on Permeability_GRL

12. Tang Chunan, Men Xiaoxi, 2015PHD thesis:RFPA simulation of hydraulic fracturing considering HM coupling

13. Zhu Wanchegn, 2014 scCO2 fracturing using COMSOL

14. Foreign shale gas resources exploration and development status

15. High-resolution brittle fracture simulation with boundary elements (Video)

16. 2016, Experimental investigation of heterogeneity and geostress difference

17. 2016, CDEM-based analysis of heterogeneous glutenites

18. 2017, COMSOL, water, nitrogen and CO2 fracturing fluids


19. Fracturing model by Dongxiao Zhang(PKU)

20. CDEM-based analysis of hydrofracturing cracks in multiple wells(ZDX)

20. 2018, JPSE, Influence of gravel on the propagation pattern of hydraulic fracture in the glutenite reservoir

21. 2018, JPSE, The effect of heterogeneity on hydraulic fracturing in shale by Dongxiao Zhang(PKU)


Summary for shale gas extraction and numerical methods

1. 2015 zhuagnz-summary for shale gas extraction-CHINESE QUARTERLY OF MECHANICS

2. 2016 zhuagnz-summary for hydraulic fracturing-Chin Sci Bull

3. 2016 suyewang-summary for numerical methods of hydraulic fracturing-Sci Tech Rev

4. 2017 zhuagnz-summary for shale gas extraction-CJTAM


Multiple clusters of hydraulic fractures

1. 2016 zhuagnz-multiple clusters of hydraulic fractures-CM

2. 2017, Zeng QL, CM, Multiple hydraulic fractures

3. 2017, Zeng QL, JAM, Multiscale Self-Consistent Fracture Network


Fracturing simulation based on bonded particle models (BPM)

1. 2017, Effect of natural microcracks on the supercritical CO2 fracturing

2. 2017, Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Modified two-dimensional particle flow code - method and validation

3. 2017, Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Modified two-dimensional particle flow code - case study

4. 2017, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, Pulse hydraulic fracturing

5. 2017, J Rock Mech Geotech Engin, Coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in quasi-brittle rocks using BPM-DEM

6. 2016, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, fracture initiation and breakdown pressure

7. 2016, Comput Geotech, Distinct element methods to simulation of hydraulic fracturing in naturally fractured reservoirs

8. 2016, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, Fluid-driven near-borehole fracture propagation using PFC2D

9. 2015, Bull Eng Geol Environ, Fluid-driven fractures in granular materials

10. 2014, International Journal of Coal Geology, Simulation_of_hydraulic_fracturing_using_particle_flow_method_and_application_in_a_coal_mine1

11. 2011, Int J Rock Mech Min Sci, Fluid viscosity and particle size distribution

12. 2017, RMRE, Experimental investigation of the effect of bedding planes

13. 2017, RMRE, Effect of random natural fractures on hydraulic fracture propagation geometry in fractured carbonate rocks


PHD Thesis

(CAJViewer download)

1. 【2016, Liupeng】PHD thesis-Experimental and numerical simulating studies on hydrofracturing mechanism of glutenite

2. 【2016, Zhaoxi】PHD thesis-Numerical simulation and experimental study on three dimensional crack initiation and propagation of shale stimulated by hydro-fracture


Summary for multiple horizontal wells and multistage hydrofracturing

1. Interaction and optimization of multiple wells in fracturing

2. Multi-stage fracturing in horizontal well

3. Stress-shadow effect between perforation clusters


Numerical analysis of the hydrofracturing behaviour of heterogeneous glutenite considering HMcoupling effects based on BPMs

1. 【2017, Donghongyu】MD thesis-Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Hydrofracturing Behaviour of Heterogeneous Glutenite using BPMs

2. Program using PFC2D & PFC3D



Study on Shale Fracability Evaluation Based on Fractal Description of Fracture Network

【2017, Lili Sui】PHD thesis-Study on Shale Fracability Evaluation Based on Fractal Description of Fracture Network

【2016, Sui】A quantification method for shale fracability based on analytic hierarchy process

【2015, Sui】Comprehensive evaluation of shale fracability in Dongying subsidence zone of Shengli oilfield

【2014, Sui】Fractal description of rock fracture behavior



Numerical and experimental investigations f hydraulic fracturing by Zou Shiyu & Zhang Shicheng, China University of Petroleum (BJ)

1. Experimental investigations

2. Numerical investigations


Models, fluid flow, and gas production (References for Elfen tgr)

1. Part I


Effective medium model of fractured rock (References)